13 August 2012

Minor League Update: Kevin Gausman (rhp, Clas A-SS Aberdeen)

Kevin Gausman (rhp, Class A-SS Aberdeen) made his home debut for the Iron Birds on Sunday, tossing three scoreless innings.  Gausman cut through Connecticut's line-up with little difficulty, the lone hit surrendered coming off the bat of former Stanford Cardinal (and fellow 2012 draftee) Jake Stewart.

Gausman's 2012 pro action will be limited to short stints as he rounds out his work load for the year, which began back in February with LSU.  Through two starts, the young righty's cumulative line sits at 6 IP, 1 H, 0 R, 0 ER, 0 BB, and 5 SO. 

Currently Baltimore's #3 prospect, Gausman has true #1 upside and could headline the Orioles future rotation or slot in behind Dylan Bundy, depending on how each refines.  His fastball and change-up are already consistently above-average to plus, with each of his curve and his slider showing plus at times over the past two seasons. 

Here is our brief overview of Gausman from the 2012 mid-season top 25 prospect rankings:
3. Kevin Gausman (rhp, unassigned) / Age: 21y6m / Prev. Rank: N/A
Baltimore's first round selection in the 2012 draft (fourth overall selection) has an impact arsenal and has shown a proclivity for absorbing instruction over the past two years at LSU. His progression is unlikely to be linear, but the finished product could be a legit #1 or #2 starter. He should have limited pro exposure this summer, and will likely start 2013 with Class A-Adv. Frederick. 

We broke down Gausman in more detail here, as part of our draft coverage.  His next start should come next weekend, again against Connecticut. 

12 August 2012

The Orioles Record on August 12 the last 20 Years

With the loss last night, the Orioles fell out of the Wild Card lead and are now a half game backwith Detroit.  Tampa and Oakland now lead the Wild Card.  What remains exciting is that this is the first true threat by the Orioles to get into the playoffs this last in the season since 1997 when they went wire to wire in first place.  In fact, 0.5 games out of the Wild Card is a good 8.5 games better than there next closest mark on August 12 since 1997.

With 15 years gone between genuinely competitive years, we have many a fan who is unfamiliar with a winning club and many who do not exactly comprehend how well the team has picked up wins.

Below is a table comparing the records of all Orioles teams on August 12 since 1993.

Year W L Rnk GB
1993 65 31 4 2.5
1994 63 49 2 7
1995 46 51 3 12
1996 60 56 2 9
1997 72 41 1 Up by 5
1998 61 57 3 26.5
1999 51 63 4 19.5
2000 50 64 4 13.5
2001 49 68 4 20
2002 56 59 3 15.5
2003 57 60 4 13.5
2004 54 58 4 17.5
2005 56 58 4 10.5
2006 51 65 4 18
2007 53 62 4 16.5
2008 57 61 5 14.5
2009 47 66 5 23
2010 40 74 5 30.5
2011 45 70 5 26.5
2012 61 53 3 6.5

11 August 2012

Who Gets In? (8/11/2012)

I put in a different column this week.  As mentioned before, I have been using season long fWAR to project future performance.  The idea is that perhaps fWAR is a better metric to use for a projection than simple runs scored and runs given.  The new column (p30) uses fWAR from the past 30 days to project future performance.  I do not know if it is a better way to do things or not.  Regardless, both methods are utilizing a descriptive statistic as the basis for projecting performance.

Team Wins Proj. Wins Total * p30 Proj
NYY  66 30 96 East 96
TEX  65 30 95 West 89
CHW  61 26 87 WC 84
 BAL  61 21 82 5 GB 84
 DET  61 27 88 Central 90
 OAK  60 24 84 3 GB 88
 TBR  60 25 85 2 GB 89
 LAA  60 27 87 WC 88
 BOS  56 25 81 6 GB 78
 TOR  53 23 76 11 GB 74
 CLE  52 21 73 14 GB 68
 SEA  51 21 72 15 GB 75
 MIN  49 22 71 16 GB 76
 KCR  48 23 71 16 GB 72
To emphasize the AL East:

Team Proj Win
NYY  30
TBR 25
BOS 25
 TOR 23
 BAL 21

10 August 2012

The Replacement Arms

by Jon Bernhardt

There’s been a lot of talk about the luck the Baltimore Orioles have had in being nine games above .500 going into the second weekend of August, tied for a berth in the new second Wild Card slot and generally playing over their heads across the board.

Specifically, it’s been tied to the Orioles’ record in one-run games—22-6 (.786) –and their record in extra innings—12-2 (.857). Neither of those winning percentages are sustainable at those margins.
The above sentence should be read not as “the Orioles are about to regress in one-run games and extra innings, hard” but instead as “it’s more likely than not that moving forward, they will see a more normal rate of success; that is, closer to .500.” There is absolutely no reason that just because the Orioles have played .750 ball in one-run games up until this arbitrary point, that they must play deplorably to even things out—just that you shouldn’t be too surprised or disappointed if that goes on for a little while. In other words, there’s no such thing as being due. This is elementary probability.
But baseball games—and most human endeavors—are governed by far more than luck, and the most important thing that a team can have in a game that’s late and close is good pitching. As Taylor Teagarden has demonstrated on multiple occasions, if a game goes long enough just about any hitter will do; it’s the pitchers that really matter. Once you get into the soft belly of a bullpen things have a tendency to go south very fast.

The Orioles bullpen, however, hasn’t shown many signs of that—excepting 2011 closer Kevin Gregg, of course, who has been all but explicitly demoted to mop-up duty. In the offseason there was massive turnover in the composition of the Orioles pen from last year, due mostly to the efforts of Buck Showalter and new General Manager Dan Duquette. Showalter is not, and should not, be showrunning actual baseball ops decisions, but the man knows how to put together and use a pitching staff. It’s useful now, I think, as the Orioles go into the final run of the season, to examine a few members of the current Baltimore pen and exactly how they’re doing what they’re doing—especially late and close.
Mop-Up: Kevin Gregg
2011 Role: MLB Closer, Baltimore
2012 Compensation: $5,800,000
2013 Contract Status: Free Agent
Let’s start with Kevin, actually. Gregg was last year’s closer and Gregg was abysmal last year, but one hardly had much to do with the other; Gregg’s a marginal major leaguer to begin with and it’s likely only his make-up and personal bravado kept him hanging around in the late innings as long as he did. Not that Gregg has a bad make-up, per se. Closer mentality is horribly overrated and terribly misused as a term, but the fact remains that the late innings are higher pressure situations than the earlier ones simply because journalists, fans, coaches, and other players act as if it were so. There have been pitchers—LaTroy Hawkins is the classic example walked out here, but there have been others—who have been able to handle every relief duty except the closer’s role. The reason men like Hawkins are so rare are because generally players that can’t psychologically handle closing also can’t handle other instances of high leverage relief, pitch poorly across the board and are quickly remanded back to the minor leagues.

All that said, having a closer mentality doesn’t actually make one better at throwing baseballs, as Orioles fans discovered when Gregg came out. There was a metric last year that I had called the Kevin Gregg Hat Trick: the strikeout, the walk, and the hit allowed in a single inning. There were instances last year where Gregg recorded two of those in the same outing, though he never had an inning where he recorded a save with three, to my knowledge. Considering that recording three Kevin Gregg Hat Tricks requires allowing six baserunners while making no outs on the basepaths, I’m not even sure it’s possible. As the year wore on, he began allowing more hits and walking more batters while striking out fewer and trying to keep a running tally just became an exercise in depression.
Gregg’s been a bit of a nuisance in 2012, but nothing heart-stopping or nightmare-fueling like last year. The reason isn’t because his pitching’s improved all that much—his 105 ERA+, 1.76 K/BB, 1.598 WHIP line in 2012 is better than his 97 ERA+, 1.33 K/BB, 1.642 WHIP line in 2011, but not excessively so—but because his game-entering Leverage Index (gmLI), which tracks how important the situation is to the team when a pitcher enters the game with 1.0 being average pressure, has plummeted from 1.4 in 2011 to 0.5 in 2012. So in essence, he’s being used just like a guy who can give you 60-70 innings of middling with lots of hits, lots of walks, and lots of strikeouts should be used—sparingly. Showalter gave Gregg an entire lost season to prove he could pitch late and build his value, he couldn’t, he didn’t, he’s mop-up, case closed.

To his credit, Gregg’s taken his demotion with surprising grace considering his willingness to call out former teammate Koji Uehara last year when the Baltimore media began debating whether Gregg or Uehara should close, and there were reports that he’s tried to take on some sort of mentor role towards younger players on the team. Good on him, I say. It’s a savvy move, too: if you’re not going to beat the world on the field, you better show that you’re worth something to a club off of it. Gregg probably won’t have trouble finding work with a club next year, though it won’t be for the ludicrous 2/12 the Orioles gave him.
Middle Relief: Troy Patton
2011 Role: MLB Middle Relief, Baltimore; AAA Long Relief/Spot Starter, Norfolk
2012 Compensation: $480,000
2013 Contract Status: First Year Arbitration Eligible
Troy Patton’s had an interesting year; in fact, it might be the most interesting of all of pitchers that returned to the pen from last year’s squad. Patton came to Baltimore in the (first) Miguel Tejada trade, which sent Miggy to Houston for Luke Scott, Patton, Matt Albers, Dennis Sarfate, and Mike Costanzo. Scott is now a Tampa Bay Ray, Albers a Diamondback by way of Boston, Sarfate’s in Japan and Costanzo is tooling around the Cincinnati organization, but Patton remains in Baltimore. He was the best prospect in the deal (Scott was already a major leaguer, if a part time player of sorts before coming to Baltimore), and he rewarded the Orioles by immediately tearing his labrum and missing all of 2008. He stayed in the minors for almost all of 2009, pitching only 2/3 of an inning, but then came up late in 2011 put up a 142 ERA+ and 4.40 K/BB (components: 6.6 K/9, 1.5 BB/9) in 30 IP working mostly in relief of beleaguered Orioles starters. He looked to build on that in 2012.
He has: 50 IP, 156 ERA+, 4.18 K/BB (8.3 K/9, 2.0 BB/9). He wasn’t used as much of a longman in 2011 (1.5 IP per G), but that’s fallen even further in 2012 (1.04 IP per G); Patton also has the distinction of being the only left-handed pitcher in the pen most nights in 2012, so Showalter will occasionally use him in match-ups situations; last year Mike Gonzalez had that honor, and usually made a horror show of it.

I will begin by falling on my own sword: I wasn’t particularly impressed with what I saw of Patton last year despite the numbers and I thought the Orioles should have kept Zach Phillips, who came over from the Texas Rangers at the same time as Pedro Strop, as the match-up lefty. Phillips has been decent in AAA, but Patton has been one of the most useful lefty relievers in baseball, putting up a 1.6 rWAR.

Patton’s going to get some money in arbitration, but he’ll be around for a bit longer, and that’s good. He came up as a starter but baseball in general and Baltimore specifically could use more guys who are able to pitch 80-90 elite innings out of the pen with multiple innings per appearance—it’ll be interesting to see if Patton will turn into a guy like that. The Orioles starters could use it.
Middle Relief: Luis Ayala
2011 Role: MLB Middle Relief/Set-Up, New York Yankees
2012 Compensation: $825,000
2013 Contract Status: $1,000,000 Club Option ($100,000 Buyout)
Luis Ayala is a fantastic example of cheap lightning in a bottle. He’s been a bit less overwhelming of late—it’s hard to play over one’s head forever, especially in the AL East—but he’s put up a 159 ERA+ with a 3.00 K/BB (5.5 K/9, 1.8 BB/9). For his career Ayala has a 2.2 BB/9, which highlights a common thread of the Baltimore bullpen this year: they don’t walk just about anyone. 

“Not walking anyone” correlates almost exactly with “being a good relief arm;” a certain number of walks are acceptable so long as they’re nullified by strikeouts, which don’t give those free runners much room to advance like long flyballs into the corners or simple grounders to first can, but really not walking anyone is the best policy. Some of the biggest problem children of Orioles bullpens past—Chris Ray, for example, or last year’s Mike Gonzalez and Kevin Gregg (hello there!)—struck out a lot of guys but walked a whole lot, too. A little bad luck on batted ball placement and that goes south real fast.

So Luis Ayala will likely be back next year, especially considering the general esteem surrounding his current season, and he might be less lucky than he’s been this year on batted balls or he might be luckier still, but he’s certainly not a bad arm and at his cost, grabbing his option is somewhat of a no-brainer.
Middle Relief: Darren O’Day
2011 Role: MLB Mop-Up, Texas; AAA Relief, Round Rock
2012 Compensation: $1,325,000
2013 Contract Status: Third Year Arbitration Eligible
Darren O’Day was one of the last acquisitions of the MacPhail regime, picked up only a few days before Andy MacPhail stepped down as Executive Vice President of Baseball Operatons—and so, one might presume given his team and when the Orioles grabbed him, O’Day is an Oriole because manager Buck Showalter wanted him. It was a good call.

O’Day pitches submarine style, and so far this year has been good for him and for Baltimore: 45.2 IP, 165 ERA+, 5.50 K/BB (8.7 K/9, 1.6 BB/9). Once again, O’Day doesn’t walk anyone; and once again, like Ayala, his BB/9 is a bit lower than his career rate (2.3 BB/9 in 226.1 IP). The best bullpens are lucky and cheap, and the Orioles’ three major middle relievers not walking anyone while costing less than $2.5 million altogether is a good instance of that.

There’s been little discussion of splits here amongst the middle relievers because Showalter doesn’t play to those, for the most part; Patton, Ayala, and O’Day are all average an inning or more of relief, and Showalter doesn’t have any one out guys he likes to play with—outside of the stalwarts, bullpen spots are filled by guys that Showalter and Duquette want to take a look at, like Stuart Pomeranz, Miguel Socolovich, Steve Johnson, and Miguel Gonzalez. In the case of the latter two, they liked that look enough to give the guys starts, and so far both have paid off. Sometimes Tommy Hunter or Dana Eveland have hung around as long relievers and swingmen, but otherwise the bullpen is essentially five or six guys.

Given his season and that he’ll likely be fairly cheap next year too, I’d expect to see O’Day resigned before going to arbitration instead of non-tendered.
Set-Up: Pedro Strop
2011 Role: MLB Mop-Up, Texas; MLB Set-Up, Baltimore; AAA Relief, Texas
2012 Compensation: $482,500
2013 Contract Status: Under Team Control
Strop is a bit of a conundrum. He was acquired from Texas at the end of last year for Mike Gonzalez and ever since he arrived he’s been lights out. After a very good end to the 2011 season with Baltimore, he was in contention with Jim Johnson for the closer’s spot going into camp this year—a spot Johnson won mostly based on seniority and himself being a good pitcher. Not that this seems to be a problem; Pedro Strop is pitching in the 7th and 8th innings and is tied with Aroldis Chapman for the most valuable reliever, by rWAR, in baseball with 2.8.

But how? Strop’s ERA+ is amazing, 332, but really ERA+ isn’t too useful when evaluating relievers beyond “below 100 is very very bad.” His K/BB, however, is only 1.58 (6.9 K/9, 4.3 BB/9). He’s doing what Chris Ray and Mike Gonzalez before him did: he’s walking far too many batters. How, then, is he getting away with it?

Strop is inducing terrible, terrible contact and getting very, very lucky. His GB% is 68, with a 3.79 GB/FB rate. His BABIP against is .231. His strand rate is 90.3%. Some of this might be sustainable—specifically, the groundball rate—and if it is it will make the other stuff more sustainable, but being real: Pedro Strop is not Aroldis Chapman. He’s just gotten outcomes vaguely like him. The good news is that Strop does have strikeout stuff, and if he can figure out how to make it move and make it a strike at the same time, he could turn into a legit late inning guy.
Closer: Jim Johnson
2011 Role: MLB Relief Ace, Baltimore
2012 Compensation: $2,625,000
2013 Contract Status: Third Arbitration Year Eligible
Johnson pitched 91 innings out of the pen last year in 69 games, showing up anywhere from the sixth to the ninth innings; he rarely showed up for less than one and he regularly threw two. By the end of the year he was the closer in all but name, and there was some discussion over the offseason whether or not Johnson would return to starting as he had in the minors or if he would become the team’s closer.

He became the closer, and while generally I think that’s been a waste of his talents as a durable sinkerballer who doesn’t strike a lot of guys out, walks even fewer, and gets a lot of groundballs, the performance of the rest of the bullpen hasn’t really pushed the issue and I’m willing to accept that Showalter probably knows better than I do. That said, Johnson’s gotten very lucky on grounders finding defenders up until recently—the last couple weeks have highlighted why the strikeout is preferable, especially with a bad defense behind you. Nevertheless, he’s been fine for what he is.
Honorable Mention: Matt Lindstrom
Lindstrom’s been hurt a bit, only recording 30 innings to the 45-50 innings of the other three middle relievers, but just about every results-based analysis of them applies to him too. He’s been valuable, and the Jeremy Guthrie for Jason Hammels/Matt Lindstrom deal is looking like the steal of the year even if neither Oriole pitcher is especially healthy right now.


So the Orioles pen going into the last fifty or so games of the season is essentially six men (and Kevin Gregg), all of whom are having some degree of an amazing year and none of whom are locked in for long in case that goes south in 2013. All in all, I’d say the Orioles front office did a pretty good job with this one.

But then there’s still fifty or so games to go, aren’t there?

Machado's Debut

Machado's first MLB game in 248 words:

Pregame, Palmer noted defense and ABs against lefties as the niche Machado will be filling.  Anyone who thinks this promotion doesn't come with high hopes, expectations and an incredible amount of pressure is insane.  Obviously that's not to say Machado isn't equipped to meet the challenge, but make no mistake he is in Baltimore because the front office and the manager of the Major League club expect him to be a contributing force in a playoff push. That doesn't mean "carry the team", but it does mean "be better than what we've had through the first 110-plus games."

Offensively, Manny looked great for a kid making a two-level jump.  At various times he was clearly over-matched by Major League sequencing and execution, but that's to be expected.  His triple was the same contact point as Wieters' oppo homerun.  The distinguishing factors were Wieters' strength, pitch velocity, and Wieters' ability to better incorporate his lower-half.  Both hitters showed excellent coverage in driving their respective offerings. 

Defensively, Machado should eat up the type of balls he saw -- velocity on the ground in his set-up wingspan (within one-step reach of his position at bat-to-ball contact).  This is where his soft hands play-up.  I'm really looking forward to watching as he is tested with a wider variety of plays -- he should be fun over there.

We'll check in on Machado again once there is a larger body of work.For now, enjoy the show!

09 August 2012

Who Gets In? (8/9/2012)

Here is the expected records update using fWAR,

Team Wins Proj. Wins Total *
TEX  65 31 96 East
NYY  64 31 95 West
CHW  60 26 86 WC2
 OAK  60 25 85 1 GB
 DET  60 27 87 Central
 BAL  60 21 81 5 GB
 TBR  58 25 83 3 GB
 LAA  59 28 87 WC1
 BOS  55 26 81 5 GB
 TOR  53 24 77 9 GB
 CLE  51 22 73 13 GB
 SEA  51 22 73 13 GB
 MIN  49 23 72 14 GB
 KCR  47 24 71 16 GB

The Orioles have improved themselves by three wins since last time.

Let's hope for that upward trend.

Thoughts on Machado; what I'm looking forward to seeing

It is an exciting time for Orioles fans.  Baltimore has taken care of business thus far on a 10-game home stand against teams of which they desperately need to take advantage.  Last night, after the O's fifth straight victory, it was announced that Dylan Bundy (rhp, #1 ranked Orioles prospect) was to be promoted from Class A Frederick to Double-A Bowie for his next start.  Moments later, a bombshell was dropped -- Manny Machado (ss, #2 ranked Orioles prospect) was being jumped from Double-A Bowie to Baltimore, and would debut today.

I was tempted to stay out of the fray for a few days.  The signal-to-noise ratio on Machado appraisals, and appraisals of the decision by the Orioles front office to make this promotion, is minuscule, with lots of comparisons to the likes of Elvis Andrus and Starlin Castro, some mentions of the struggles of Mike Trout in his first taste of Major League Baseball last summer (and of course his subsequent emergence as an elite producer in The League), cautionary references to Matt Wieters and his hot-cold three-plus years with the Orioles, and of course reference to Alex Rodriguez and his first 200 at bats as a teenager with the Seattle Mariners.

Machado is a special talent.  He has the natural ability, the pedigree, and the force of the national "prospect experts" behind him.  He has two MLB Futures Game appearances in his belt.  He has been among the youngest players in the league at each stop in his professional career and has held his own (even excelling for periods of time against much older competition).  As an amateur he was a focused and determined player, relying heavily on a strong support system in his family, teammates and amateur team coaches.  His grades on make-up at the professional level have been good, and anecdotal stories from scouts have been better.  All of the elements are here for Machado to step into the start of a long and exciting career.

I'm not going to use this space to temper enthusiasm, or to point out flaws in the comparisons that I referenced above.  This isn't the right environment for a tempered and analytical discussion on player development, evaluation and comparison of players across skill sets and periods of time, or projection systems estimating Major League performance based on minor league data.   No matter the manner in which they have come to find themselves here, the Orioles are in the playoff hunt in August and have just promoted their top positional prospect to the Bigs -- a prospect largely considered (among relevant evaluative reporters) one of the top ten in all of baseball.

Let the ulta-optimistic fans come up with reasons that Machado will be the difference in the O's making the playoffs.  Let the armchair evaluators break down "Machado's game" and how it will play in Baltimore.  Let the passing prospect fans make ill-fitting comps and let the .gif and YouTube crowd break down the same 45 second clips while providing "scouty" reports.  This is what happens when something transcendently exciting happens.  Everyone is interested and everyone would like to share their thoughts.  The promotion of a nationally recognized prospect is just such a transcendent occurrence, and that is nothing but a good thing for all baseball fans.

O's fans and baseball fans in general will now be treated with the opportunity to view Machado as often as the Orioles decide to play him.  Manny gets a taste of "the good life", staying at comfortable hotels, traveling first class or charter by plane and train, and playing against the best baseball players in the world in front of tens of thousands of people in person and hundreds of thousands of people via video.  I, for one, am looking forward to taking off my scouting cap (okay, it goes back on during the weekend -- there is still a lot of work to be done for my MLB org on the 2013 draft class) and just watching Machado play.  I hope would-be sports writers and bloggers, message board participants, and O's fans in general enjoy writing about and debating the merits of Machado's promotion.  I also hope they allow themselves the luxury of just sitting back and watching this promising Baby Bird take his first few steps.


No, I'm not going to hypocritically follow that up with a scouting report...Because I've been asked, here are a couple paragraphs highlighting what I'm most looking forward to seeing over the next few weeks.  After Labor Day, I'll post my in-depth thoughts on Machado the Major Leaguer.  For the next few weeks, I'm 100% in observation (fan) mode (sorry).

Machado has been working out at third base for some time at Bowie, despite limited in-game action there.  No amount of side work prepares you for balls off of Major League bats at the hot corner, but Machado has very soft hands, a cannon for an arm, and a pretty good lower-half, all of which should help.  The biggest challenge for a shortstop making this switch at the Major League level (let alone while simultaneously jumping from Double-A) is adjusting to angles and letting go of control.

Angles, I think, are self explanatory.  The ball comes off the bat a little differently at third than at short, with a slightly different spin.  Because Major League infields are manicured differently than minor league infields, there is an additional adjustment to balls off of Major League grass.  Making those new reads is something that can only be accomplished through reps.  I look forward to seeing Manny's pre-game infield and, what I assume will be, regular additional reps during BP.  I look forward to seeing growth in this part of his game the longer he's at the five-spot.

"Letting go of control" speaks to a difference in approach between third and short.  Shortstops, for the most part, have the freedom to create their lines and their hops.  The difference between an average shortstop and a good shortstop, and between a good shortstop and an elite shortstop, is largely instinctual.

The best shortstops have a comfort level in the field that allows them to be creative in the lines they take in order to put themselves in the best position possible to complete a play.  At third, Machado will often have to let go of the urge to create those lines and hops and get used to playing the ball as it's hit.  There is less room (and less time) to maneuver, which means more importance is placed on soft hands, quick actions, and proper positioning.  It is a challenging switch to be sure, and watching a talent like Machado make those adjustments should be fun.

At bat
There is little mystery here.  I am looking forward to seeing Machado apply a general solid approach to Major League pitching.  He'll get to pick the minds of O's hitters and coaches and will be in a position to make rapid adjustments.  At the same time, he will be facing the best pitching he has ever faced.  I could hazard an estimate at OPS, while pointing out the areas I think are most likely to challenge the young infielder, but that can wait for the post-Labor Day piece.  Right now it is very, very simply -- I want to see how Manny sees the ball; I want to see how Manny hits the ball.

I'll check in tomorrow with some thoughts on tonight's game; Happy Machado Day O's fans!

08 August 2012

Just a Graph: Cumulative Camden Yards Attendance (2010-2012)

A follow up from this morning.  Around games 20 through 40 is where interleague play occurs.

Here is a 5 game moving average.

What we see here is that June was a remarkable improvement in terms of attendance.

Next is a graph showing the last three years' cumulative attendance.